Your list is wrong.

To provide just two examples, the Dutch and Swiss both use dual payer systems where the citizen buys their insurance directly from an insurer, who creates their coverage plans in much the same way as we do in the US (or did, before the ACA radically limited the flexibility an insurer has in creating plans).

The insurer is then compensated both by the insured and the government.

The difference is that in these types of dual payer systems, the insurer is treated like a utility company — — they set and raise rates in negotiation with the federal (or in the case of Switzerland, the state) government.

Free markets, free minds. Question all narratives. If you think one political party is right and the other party is evil, the problem with our politics is you.

Free markets, free minds. Question all narratives. If you think one political party is right and the other party is evil, the problem with our politics is you.